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Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani are two important terms associated with Hajj. Miqat Zamani refers to a specific time or moment designated for entering the state of ihram. Miqat Zamani is based on the Hajj timetable, such as the appointed time and date, which serves as a reference for starting the Hajj by entering ihram.
Meanwhile, Miqat Makani refers to geographical locations or certain places that are designated as starting points for pilgrims to enter the state of ihram, which is a special condition that restricts some activities and requires pilgrims to comply with certain rules.
Here is more in-depth information on Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani and a practical guide to ensure truFriends are prepared for Hajj with the right confidence and knowledge. Let's explore together the differences and importance of these two concepts in preparing for the journey.
Definition of Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani
Miqat itself literally means the boundary or line between permissible and not, or the start and stop orders, which is when to start reciting the intention to enter ihram.
Before entering into the differences between Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani, truFriends must recognize the meaning of both, according to the explanation of Islamic law in general. Miqat is divided into 2 types, namely Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani.
Miqat Zamani is the implementation of the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimage including place and time. Miqat Makani is the limit of the start of the place, while Miqat Zamani is the limit of the start of the implementation time.
Definition of Miqat Zamani
Miqat zamani are some predetermined months in which it is not permissible to enter ihram except in these months.
The months of Hajj are: Shawwal, Zulkaidah and 10 nights of the month of Zulhijjah.
As mentioned in the Qur'an Surah Al-Baqarah verse 197:
"(The seasons of) Hajj are some months that are understood."
If a person enters ihram for Hajj in a month other than these months, then his ihram becomes an Umrah ihram, not a Hajj ihram.
Definition of Miqat Makani
Miqat Makani are places that are determined to start the intention of performing Hajj and Umrah.
The Prophet Muhammad SAW has determined the places of miqat as in the hadith which reads as follows:
"Miqat-miqat is for its inhabitants and people other than its inhabitants who come through it, from people who want to perform Hajj or Umrah" (HR. Bukhari & Muslim).
Pilgrims who want to enter the city of Makkah to perform Hajj or Umrah are not allowed to pass through these miqat locations without entering ihram. If you pass through without being in ihram, you must pay a dam (slaughter a sheep).
Procedure for Miqat Zamani and Miqat Makani
The procedure for doing Miqat Makani at a predetermined location is quite easy, namely by :
Must be dressed in Ihram.
Perform a 2 rak'ah sunnah prayer at the designated Miqat location.
Say the intention, then leave for Mecca to do Thawaf at the Temple and perform Sa'i.
The procedure for doing Miqat Zamani, as mentioned in the Quran Surah Al Baqarah verses 189 and 197: "They ask you about the crescent moon. Say: The crescent is a sign of time for mankind and for the Hajj, ..."
And in the following verse 197 it says, "(The seasons of) Hajj are some months that are understood."
The months of Hajj are Shawwal, Dhulqa'dah and Dhul Hijjah.
The following is a breakdown of the opinions of the Imams of the four madhhabs regarding the months of Hajj:
Shawwal, Dhu'l-Qa'dah and the first ten days of Dhu'l-Hijjah (the day of the feast of Nahr/Idul Adha is included in this), which is the view of Maalik and Hanafis
Shawwal, Zulkaidah and the ten nights of the first day of Zulhijjah; this is the view of the Shaafa'i madhhab.
Shawwal, Dhu'l-Qa'dah, and Zulhijjah are the ones chosen by the Hanbali madhhab.
There are different madhhab opinions regarding people who enter ihram outside of these months. According to the beliefs of Imam Hanafi, Imam Maliki and Imam Hanbali, the ruling is makrooh, even if the Hajj is valid.
However, contrary to the opinion of these Imams, according to the correct opinion of Shafi'i, his Ihram becomes an Umrah Ihram, not a Hajj Ihram, or his Hajj is invalid.
The total time of Miqat Zamani is 69 days or about three months. The Madhhab considers that if a pilgrim enters ihram after the 10th of Dhu'l-Hijjah, his Hajj is no longer valid. They can only perform Umrah.
Location of Miqat Makani
The following are the names of the Miqat Makani places, among others:
Bir Ali: This location is located 12 km from the city of Medina, is a miqat that comes or comes from the city of Medina.
Al-Juhfa: The location is located between the city of Mecca and the city of Medina is about 187 km from the city of Makkah, is a miqat for pilgrims coming from the city of Sham, Egypt, and Morocco or in the same direction. After the loss of Al-Juhfah, this miqat was replaced with Rabigh which is 204 km from Makkah.
Yalamlam: The location is located on the southern hill, 54 km from the city of Mecca. If the arrival is from Yemen and Asia.
Qarnul Manazil: The location is located on the eastern hill, 94 km from the city of Mecca.
Dzatu' Irq: The location is located north of the city of Mecca, 94 km away, coming from the city of Iraq.
As for Miqat Makani for pilgrims from Indonesia, according to the Ministry of Religion, for the first wave of pilgrims heading to Medina first, the miqat will start from Bi'r Ali (Dzulhulaifah). As for the second wave of pilgrims who go directly to Mecca, the miqat is when they are on the airplane on a line parallel to Qarnul Manazil or Yalamlam. The crew will inform the pilgrims so that they can get ready to enter ihram. The opinion of the Indonesian Ministry of Religious Affairs is that King Abdul Aziz Airport, Jeddah can also be used as miqat for Indonesian pilgrims.
However, there is another opinion that if it cannot be done on the plane, the miqat for the second batch of pilgrims can be done at the embarkation hostel.
If you have made the intention of Ihram before miqat then the pilgrims must abstain from the known Ihram restrictions. Basically, Miqat Makani is the opening to perform the Hajj pilgrimage.
If you do not do it, you will get a fine or dam, namely a goat. Or you can do the following 2 ways:
Return to the miqat that was passed earlier, but before carrying out one of the activities of Hajj or Umrah.
Take the miqat closest to the haram (at least 2 marhalah = 89.04 km). Intend to enter ihram from their lodgings or before arriving at the miqat. Pilgrims who will start Ihram with miqat Bi'r Ali are allowed to intend Ihram from the city of Medina.
That is the difference between Miqat Makani and Miqat Zamani that truFriends should know. By understanding it, Insha Allah, truFriends can perform Hajj and Umrah smoothly.
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